我們是要培養低頭看手機的「羊」?還是要培養喜歡在戶外流浪的「狼」?

IMG_9316我經常會皺起眉頭,擔心孩子的手機成癮,我的孩子反駁我,他說:「爸爸,你是研究成癮。」

他們年紀太小,只有五歲和六歲,不瞭解,這個爸爸每天在電腦桌前打字,長時間和他們投入在遊戲中的樣子很像,是否也是「研究成癮?」 我們不可能研究成癮,研究很痛苦,談不上成癮。 所以,手機在我家,是嚴禁的;但是我無法說服他們,我每天為甚麼要在電腦桌前,坐那麼久。

2011年臺灣通過環境教育法,規定高中以下的學校教師和學生,每年接受四個小時的環境教育。但是由於國內的教育環境,受到升學主義主張的影響,不容易落實戶外教育。因此,當年由荒野保護協會等11個全國性民間團體組成的「優質戶外教育推動聯盟」,於2012年拜會立法委員,2012年12月由立法委員邱文彥、田秋堇等60名立委連署,希望整合部會資源,共同推動戶外教育政策。為了要瞭解臺灣學校推動戶外教育情況,教育部2013年又委託國立臺灣師範大學,針對國中小教育行政人員、教師和學生,進行戶外教育現況及需求調查,教育部於2014年6月26日召開記者會,並發布《中華民國戶外教育宣言》。 以上是過去的歷史陳述,說明了行政院環境保護署推動「環境教育」,教育部推動「戶外教育」的背景。那麼,為什麼要推動環境教育?如果環境教育希望「促進國民瞭解個人及社會與環境的相互依存關係,增進全民環境倫理與責任,進而維護環境生態平衡、尊重生命、促進社會正義,培養環境公民與環境學習社群,以達到永續發展。」這是一段動人的陳述。《中華民國戶外教育宣言》是要讓「學習走入真實的世界,可以延伸學校課程的認識與想像,發現學習的意義,體驗生命的感動,提升孩子品德、多元智能、身心健康、合群互助和環境美學的素養。」這也是一段動人的陳述。

但是,我不禁懷疑:「戶外教育和環境教育之間的關係是甚麼?」

我喜愛戶外教育,從28歲在美國拿到環境規劃碩士,頂著公務人員土地行政人員高等考試及格,到了行政院環境保護署環境教育科當科員。當年,我在美國學的是環境影響評估;但是,環境影響評估科不缺人,在陰錯陽差之下,我進到環境教育這一個領域。到了2018年,我已經推動環境教育將近推動了24年。

我認為,其實「戶外教育和環境教育之間的關係」論述是不清楚的。我和學生查了全世界的相關文獻,也很難找到「學生喜歡戶外活動,是不是比較會推動環境保護」之間的關係。也就是說,如果教育部的戶外教育,和環保署的環境教育,是各吹各的調,在因果關係上,也沒有理論論述基礎,那麼部會整合之間,是有問題的。

我們調出國際期刊文獻,瞭解孩童在自然中的活動,還有成長過程中,與自然建立的連結關係,對於他們的環境友善行為,有顯著影響。更明確地說,在童年時期,如果擁有足夠戶外活動時間,盡量接觸自然,還有和動物接觸的經驗,這樣的人們會對自然環境變化比較關心,而這樣的關心會形成促使他們從事環境友善行為的驅動力,也就是說,戶外環境經驗對於孩童人格的養成也很關鍵。參與戶外環境教育課程的孩童,他們對自然會更關心,產生更為友善的環境行為。
「這樣的推論夠嗎?」

所以,如果我們進行一項調查,是否可以進行真實事件的樣本調查,尋找具體變項,推估出「喜愛戶外活動的孩子,比較有親環境行為(pro-environmental behaviors)」?基本上,以上的文獻都說得過去。

但是,我們看看21世紀的現實狀況吧。

由於世界快速變遷,孩童在戶外活動的場地越來越少。此外,在產業分工體系形成的的背景之下,由於經濟和工業建設在新興工業國家快速發展,亞洲主要工業城市,成為世界工廠中的生產邊陲地帶,更讓原來荒野型的空間逐漸限縮。在戶外綠地空間限縮的狀況之下,在城鎮化地區生活的孩子,他們主要的戶外活動場地是在哪裡?除了上學、回家路途,以外的日常生活圈之外,他們在空閒時會去的戶外活動在哪裡?這些活動的場地,有沒有讓他們有足夠接觸自然的機會?他們在戶外活動的經驗,會不會影響他們的環境行為?此外,影響環境行為的重要心理變項又是什麼?
我們想要了解下列問題。
一、喜歡校園活動的學童,和喜歡戶外活動的學童,他們在規範性判斷和推理,或是規範執行,是否有差異?
二、上述的差異,主要是由主觀規範(subjective norm),還是由描述規範(descriptive norm)所型塑的?
三、根據上述喜歡校園活動的學童,和喜歡戶外活動的學童,進行分類,如何產生「社會規範-態度-行為」的路徑?如果我們依據社會規範理論,試圖討論上述的問題,並且試圖建立「社會規範-

態度-行為」的理論模型。研究中納入社會規範(social norm)中的主觀規範(subjective norm),以及描述規範(descriptive norm)的路徑,並且說明兩者路徑之間的差異。包括了「我看到人家怎麼做」的描述規範,或是「我認識的人希望我怎麼做」的主觀規範,會導致我做對於環境友善的親環境行為(pro-environmental behavior)(Fang, Ng, and Chang, 2017)。

因此,在調查研究中,我採用平行樣本設計(parallel-samples designs),調查喜歡校園活動的學童,和喜歡戶外活動的學童之間的差異,這些差異包含了「我看到人家怎麼做」的描述規範,或是「我認識的人希望我怎麼做」的主觀規範的差異。因此,我們進行了平行樣本設計,這一種設計類似於準實驗設計,在一開始,將研究對象隨機分派為實驗組與對照組。所以,我們將喜歡校園活動的學童稱為實驗組;喜歡戶外活動的學童稱為對照組,進行調查研究中的「準實驗設計」,來進行驗證「為什麼我們要推動孩童的戶外教育?」

我們從溯因推理之中,想要瞭解在實驗組中,是否喜歡校園,下課後乖乖到安親班,或是待在教室中的孩童,比較「近朱者赤,近墨者黑」,用觀察法看事情:「人家有做,我就做環保;人家不做,我就不做環保」,產生了一種觀察和情境式的從眾(conformity)效果;做環保變成是一種「羊群效應理論」的實踐,變成了「羊群行為」。

然而,是否喜歡戶外活動的學童,是否比較符合教師和同儕期待和反思,勇於推動環境保護,具備社會的承擔性,具備正向自覺。其實,多少有一點狼群的個性,也就是符合社會規範中的期許,以獨立進取的戶外活動,培養出團結互助和奮鬥前進的進取心。 在東方醬缸文化的薰陶之下,我看到了國中小的學生,不管是下課、放學,當個低頭族,努力玩手機遊戲,手機是他們的糧草,他們溫馴,沒有自我的主見,大難來時,一哄而散,做事如機器人般的行屍走肉;但是,我們看到國中小喜歡戶外活動的學生,受到西方文化戶外教育的薰陶,是要走入真實的世界,以戶外冒險精神進行奮鬥,他們以戶外活動的真實體驗,強化了在未來社會的種種競爭能力。

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5551235/

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