我看殷海光的《思想與方法》

方偉達老師 2017年1月4日撰 原刊於方老師臉書

15826239_1148437338597668_9123286237161108475_n水牛出版社出版殷海光再刷的《思想與方法》(2013),我覺得是寫論文必備的書,我從其中獲得了邏輯辯證的好處。尤其在東方人邏輯分析上,最弱的部分,殷先生在「導論部」將邏輯經驗論(Logical Empiricism)的內涵,說得很清楚,可以指導我們思辯。雖然,邏輯經驗論(Logical Empiricism) 還是有辯證上的弱點,也就是,看到的東西,都不一定可以說明是正確的;何況是沒有看到,沒有經驗的東西,如何證明「真」,如何證明「偽」呢?

所以,當「邏輯實徵論」受到挫敗的時候,殷先生的「邏輯經驗論」是可以進行闡釋的。但是,需要理解人在經驗事物的時候,所採用感官觀測來實證,這些感官看到的,是不是都是真實的呢?或是我們的經驗,是不是都帶有文化的偏頗?語言的謬誤呢?以及認識論的偏見呢?

我指的為海森堡的「測不準原理」。這一個例子,從高中時代,我參加清華大學的科學研習營,就受到誤導。海森堡是德國人,在1927年的索爾維會議中,他用Unschärferelation這個德文,代表「不是很敏銳的關係性」(unsharpness relationships),但是英文卻翻譯成「不確定關係」 (Uncertainty Principle),中文被翻譯成「測不準原理」。從「不是很敏銳的關係性」(德文)到「不確定關係」(英文),再到「測不準原理」(中文),這中間對於文字和文化的詮釋性,差異性有多大呢?「粒子的位置與動量不可同時被確定」,這是海森堡的原意,但是,又不見得是「測不準」!我才知道,東方文化的譁眾取寵性,以及文字的浮誇性

我們假裝「一落言詮,卽一無是處」。唉!

「梅花寒中開,學問苦中成」。我還是相信這一句話,只是用「思索」,代替「死背」。黎明前就起床,開始一天的思索工作。碰到現實生活中不懂的,還是會對歷史所留下來的教誨和書籍起疑心。這是傳統中國讀書人所不准的,起疑是一種禁忌,為宗教、科舉制度和政治所不許。這也是傳統中國文化中,最缺乏的科學精神。當然,李約瑟所談的《中國的科學與文明》(The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China) (即《中國科學技術史》),談到古代中國科學。我看了半天,還是覺得我們過去,即使有科技(Technology),而無科學(Science);這些科技只知「其然」,不知「其所以然」,也就是,我認為,科技沒有進步的空間,但是科學有進步的空間。

當然,古代搞科技的人,更沒有建造理論,甚至推翻科學理論的雄心。這是我們文化中的,缺乏科學革命(Scientific revolution)的精神。我們的革命,只知殺人流血的革命,不知科學進步的革命。談到革命,人人色變,但是卻不知道,「革命」就是「革心」,是在理論中進行最後的淬煉和啟迪。但是,最弔詭的觀念是,在西方,甚至在哈佛大學,史蒂夫 . 謝平(Steven Shapin)教授都說,西方沒有「科學革命」這回事。但是,這些學者崇尚的為This Idea must Die! 也就是約翰.柏克曼編的書所談的:《這個觀念該淘汰了:頂尖專家們認為會妨礙科學發展的理論》。從指導知識,到建構知識,到解構知識,這些都是學問,但是「學問、學問」,要到豁然開朗的「大家知識」(Grand knowledge),還有很長的一條路要走。

FacebookGoogle+TwitterLine

39 thoughts on “我看殷海光的《思想與方法》

  1. Oh my goodness! a tremendous article dude. Thank you However I’m experiencing issue with ur rss . Don抰 know why Unable to subscribe to it. Is there anyone getting identical rss problem? Anybody who is aware of kindly respond. Thnkx

  2. This design is wicked! You certainly know how to keep a reader amused. Between your wit and your videos, I was almost moved to start my own blog (well, almost…HaHa!) Wonderful job. I really loved what you had to say, and more than that, how you presented it. Too cool!

  3. Hi there! This is my first visit to your blog!
    We are a team of volunteers and starting a new initiative in a community
    in the same niche. Your blog provided us beneficial information to work on. You have done a marvellous
    job!

    magliette Bayer Leverkusen

  4. I’m amazed, I must say. Rarely do I come across a blog that’s both equally educative
    and engaging, and without a doubt, you’ve hit the
    nail on the head. The problem is something not enough people are speaking
    intelligently about. Now i’m very happy that I stumbled across this during my hunt for
    something relating to this.

    Juventus tröja

  5. I do consider all of the concepts you’ve introduced on your post.
    They’re very convincing and can definitely work.
    Still, the posts are too short for novices. May just you please prolong
    them a bit from subsequent time? Thanks for the post.

    Everton tröja

  6. Hey! I know this is kinda off topic but I’d figured I’d
    ask. Would you be interested in exchanging links or maybe guest writing a blog post
    or vice-versa? My website goes over a lot of the same subjects as
    yours and I think we could greatly benefit from each other.
    If you are interested feel free to shoot me an e-mail.
    I look forward to hearing from you! Terrific blog by the way!

    Inter Milan nya tröja

  7. You really make it seem so easy with your presentation but
    I find this topic to be actually something that I think I would
    never understand. It seems too complicated and extremely broad for me.

    I am looking forward for your next post, I’ll try to get the hang of it!

    Chelsea drakt 2019

發表迴響

你的電子郵件位址並不會被公開。 必要欄位標記為 *